# Snipers Distance Guide

## Snipers Distance Guide

In the life of Airsoft, paintball or hunting sniping, It is key to know the distance of your target because the pellets, like bullets, will sink at a further distance. Want to know how far away your target is? heres a short guide on how to find out.

The scope im basing it off of is my Leapers 4X32 Mil-Dot Range Estimating Mini. Mil-Dots are essential in finding the distance of your target.

Mil Dots-

Since all estimation is made in meters you should know that One meter equals 1.0936 Yards. Just a little higher then one Yard.

The mil dot reticle was developed in the late 1970s to aid US Marine Snipers estimate distance when shooting and has now become standard issue across many branches of the military.

If you are looking at a target. Place the center of the scope were all the lines meet and place it on one edge of the target and count how many dots it takes to get to the other edge of the target. The dot that is on the 1st edge is counted as Zero so you will count Zero, One, two, three to the other side of the target.

NOTE: It is a known fact that a human body is .5 meters wide from shoulder to shoulder.

Lets say you are looking at a target through the scope and you count that the target is 4 mil dots wide.

With a calculator, or in your head which could be hard unless your good with math in the head, Multiply the size of the human which would be .5 by 400 .5 x 400 = 200 after you have done that, divide 200 by 4 which will come out as 50. Your target is at a distance of 50 meters.

If your target ends in between two dots then it will be counted as .5 so if your target is 4 dots with that then it will be 4.5

I hope this short guide helped you in finding your range, i know this can be a challenge in CQB maps like soem of the terrain i play on.

This next part i found off of a snipers site

Moving Targets

In a real life scenario, a target will most likely be moving. This movement adds yet another variable to be dealt with before squeezing off a shot.

Engaging moving targets not only requires the Sniper to determine the target's distance and the wind's effects on the round, but he must also consider the lateral speed and angle of the target, the round's time of flight, and the placement of a proper lead to compensate for both. These added variables increase the chance of a miss. Therefore, the Sniper should engage moving targets when it is the only option.

Techniques - To engage moving targets, the Sniper employs the following techniques:

1) Leading- Engaging moving targets requires the Sniper to place the cross hairs ahead of the target's movement. The distance the cross hairs are placed in front of the target's movement is called a lead. There are four factors in determining leads:

a) Speed of the target - As a target moves faster, it will move a greater distance during the bullet's flight. Therefore, the lead increases as the target's speed increases.

b) Angle of movement - A target moving perpendicular to the bullet's flight path moves a greater lateral distance than a target moving at an angle away from or toward the bullet's path. Therefore, a target moving at a 45 degree angle covers less ground than a target moving at a 90 degree angle.

c) Range to target - The farther away a target is, the longer it takes for the bullet to reach it. Therefore, the lead must be increased as the distance to the target increases.

d) Wind effects - The Sniper must consider how the wind will affect the trajectory of the round. A wind blowing with the target's direction of movement requires less of a lead than a wind blowing in the same direction as the target's movement.

2) Tracking- Tracking requires the Sniper to establish an aiming point ahead of the target's movement and to maintain it as the weapon is fired. This requires the weapon and body position to be moved while following the target and firing.

3) Trapping or Ambushing - Trapping or ambushing is the Sniper's preferred method of engaging moving targets. The Sniper must establish an aiming point ahead of the target and pull the trigger when the target reaches it. This method allows the Sniper's body to remain motionless. With practice, a Sniper can determine exact leads and aiming points using the horizontal stadia lines in the mil dots in the M3A.

4) Firing a snap shot - A Sniper uses this technique to engage a target that only presents itself briefly, then resumes cover. Once he establishes a pattern, he can aim in the vicinity of the targets expected appearance and fire a snap shot at the moment of exposure.

Calculation of leads

1. Time of flight ( in seconds ) x target speed ( in feet per seconds / fps ) = lead ( in feet )

2. then take lead ( in feet ) x .3048 = meters

3. next meters x 1000 = mil. lead

4. divided by range

Time of flight

100m = .1 sec

200m = .2

300m = .4

500m = .7

600m = .9

700m = 1.0

800m = 1.3

900m = 1.5

1000m =1.8

Target speed

slow patrol = 1fps

fast patrol = 2fps

slow walk = 4fps

fast walk = 6fps

run = 11fps

The only thing that it didnt add that a human walks at 3mph and runs at 6mph

The scope im basing it off of is my Leapers 4X32 Mil-Dot Range Estimating Mini. Mil-Dots are essential in finding the distance of your target.

Mil Dots-

Since all estimation is made in meters you should know that One meter equals 1.0936 Yards. Just a little higher then one Yard.

The mil dot reticle was developed in the late 1970s to aid US Marine Snipers estimate distance when shooting and has now become standard issue across many branches of the military.

If you are looking at a target. Place the center of the scope were all the lines meet and place it on one edge of the target and count how many dots it takes to get to the other edge of the target. The dot that is on the 1st edge is counted as Zero so you will count Zero, One, two, three to the other side of the target.

NOTE: It is a known fact that a human body is .5 meters wide from shoulder to shoulder.

Lets say you are looking at a target through the scope and you count that the target is 4 mil dots wide.

With a calculator, or in your head which could be hard unless your good with math in the head, Multiply the size of the human which would be .5 by 400 .5 x 400 = 200 after you have done that, divide 200 by 4 which will come out as 50. Your target is at a distance of 50 meters.

If your target ends in between two dots then it will be counted as .5 so if your target is 4 dots with that then it will be 4.5

I hope this short guide helped you in finding your range, i know this can be a challenge in CQB maps like soem of the terrain i play on.

This next part i found off of a snipers site

Moving Targets

In a real life scenario, a target will most likely be moving. This movement adds yet another variable to be dealt with before squeezing off a shot.

Engaging moving targets not only requires the Sniper to determine the target's distance and the wind's effects on the round, but he must also consider the lateral speed and angle of the target, the round's time of flight, and the placement of a proper lead to compensate for both. These added variables increase the chance of a miss. Therefore, the Sniper should engage moving targets when it is the only option.

Techniques - To engage moving targets, the Sniper employs the following techniques:

1) Leading- Engaging moving targets requires the Sniper to place the cross hairs ahead of the target's movement. The distance the cross hairs are placed in front of the target's movement is called a lead. There are four factors in determining leads:

a) Speed of the target - As a target moves faster, it will move a greater distance during the bullet's flight. Therefore, the lead increases as the target's speed increases.

b) Angle of movement - A target moving perpendicular to the bullet's flight path moves a greater lateral distance than a target moving at an angle away from or toward the bullet's path. Therefore, a target moving at a 45 degree angle covers less ground than a target moving at a 90 degree angle.

c) Range to target - The farther away a target is, the longer it takes for the bullet to reach it. Therefore, the lead must be increased as the distance to the target increases.

d) Wind effects - The Sniper must consider how the wind will affect the trajectory of the round. A wind blowing with the target's direction of movement requires less of a lead than a wind blowing in the same direction as the target's movement.

2) Tracking- Tracking requires the Sniper to establish an aiming point ahead of the target's movement and to maintain it as the weapon is fired. This requires the weapon and body position to be moved while following the target and firing.

3) Trapping or Ambushing - Trapping or ambushing is the Sniper's preferred method of engaging moving targets. The Sniper must establish an aiming point ahead of the target and pull the trigger when the target reaches it. This method allows the Sniper's body to remain motionless. With practice, a Sniper can determine exact leads and aiming points using the horizontal stadia lines in the mil dots in the M3A.

4) Firing a snap shot - A Sniper uses this technique to engage a target that only presents itself briefly, then resumes cover. Once he establishes a pattern, he can aim in the vicinity of the targets expected appearance and fire a snap shot at the moment of exposure.

Calculation of leads

1. Time of flight ( in seconds ) x target speed ( in feet per seconds / fps ) = lead ( in feet )

2. then take lead ( in feet ) x .3048 = meters

3. next meters x 1000 = mil. lead

4. divided by range

Time of flight

100m = .1 sec

200m = .2

300m = .4

500m = .7

600m = .9

700m = 1.0

800m = 1.3

900m = 1.5

1000m =1.8

Target speed

slow patrol = 1fps

fast patrol = 2fps

slow walk = 4fps

fast walk = 6fps

run = 11fps

The only thing that it didnt add that a human walks at 3mph and runs at 6mph

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